ohbiel, U. (201 6). Mobile and ubiquitous learning in higher training settings. A systematic evaluate of empirical studies.
At the commercial scale, DIC therapy requires about zero.8 kWh complete energy consumption for 1 kg of removed water. Since 2001, the DIC course of is operated by ABCAR-DIC Process, a French start-up firm that employed DIC growth, equipment design, and fabrication.
Instant managed stress drop is a flexible know-how. The operating parameters could be optimized to satisfy the exact needs of different industrial purposes.
Mounir and Allaf outlined a new industrial operation composed of three phases (spry drying, DIC texturing, and sizzling air drying) with the purpose of accelerating the particular surface area of some dairy powders (skim milk, sodium caseinates, and whey proteins). For example, particular floor area of whey protein powder was tripled compared to standard spray dried powders. A optimistic relation was reported between the steam pressure utilized in DIC operation and the particular surface area. Scanning electron microscopy analyses confirmed that DIC textured powders have very porous textures with quite a few in another way sized cavities and pores, which can clarify the rapid drying and improved drying kinetics . At the ultimate drying stage of skim milk, lower than 22 min have been required to achieve a humidity of 5% for the DIC treated powders compared to fifty five–60 min for the nontreated powders.
Several protocols were proposed in the literature [eight]. In basic, swell drying is defined as an operation that mixes optimized hot air drying step with a DIC texturing operation (Figure 5). In this technique, instant strain drop (DIC) step is inserted generally after a scorching air drying therapy or, typically, between two steps of typical hot air drying.
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The saturated steam, in the course of the compression step, heats the product and may increase barely the product humidity. Due to the instant stress drop, an abrupt auto evaporation of water cools the product and allows the crossing of the glass transition frontier . It was reported that construction collapse, stickiness, and agglomeration are never noticed within the temperature/water content material area beneath glass transition.