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In an analogous method, oil holding capacity (OHC) of some DIC treated foods was studied. This issue is very important in meals formulation. Setyopratomo and others noticed that oil holding capability of DIC textured cassava flour increased in comparison with standard hot air dried flour. It was about versus only 0.4 g oil/g dry cassava for DIC handled and hot air dried samples, respectively.

In addition, natural contamination of raw onions has been eradicated. A decontamination of 1.7–three.9, depending on the operation situations, was obtained [41]. The DIC and hot air drying process with regard to the glass transition curve. Here, W0 is the preliminary product humidity, WD is the humidity at the finish of hot air drying step (20–30% dry foundation), WE is the humidity at the end of compression by saturated steam step, WF is the final dried product humidity, T0 is the initial product temperature, TB is the hot air drying temperature, TE is the DIC processing temperature depending on the processing pressure, and TF is the product temperature at the finish of the DIC process (normally about 32°C).

Furthermore, the DIC process has been used to boost or help the conventional edible oil extraction from varied vegetal supplies [17]. Multi-DIC cycles allow the extraction of essential oils of aromatic crops with low energy and low water consumption. The structure expansion by DIC will increase the porosity and the specific surface space of the treated crops and improves, as a result, the solvent extraction.

DIC swell drying is the principal utility of this know-how. It is another technique used to improve typical sizzling air drying and to beat the shrinkage issues. Expanding and texturing the raw supplies by the DIC process, earlier than the ultimate scorching air drying step, end in intensifying the drying kinetics and, consequently, saving drying time and energy in comparison with conventional strategies. In addition, DIC technology can be outlined as a highly acceptable HTST type course of that can be utilized to powder and dry solids.

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Nevertheless, research in gentle of TAM into cell-based flipped learning amongst learners of various proficiency ranges in an EFL setting stays scarce. This research subsequently performed important evaluation of the dynamics embedded in EFL learners’ technological acceptance. The members were 42 sophomore English-majors taking English Oral Training classes.

The results showed that freeze dried powders exhibit the highest oil retention capability in comparison with DIC swell and sizzling air dried powders. Under optimized operating conditions for DIC swell drying had an intermediate worth of oil holding capacity of 1.5 ml oil/g powder between freeze dried (2.2 ml oil/g powder) and scorching-air dried powders (zero.91 ml oil/g powder). In the same examine, the emulsifying capability (EC) of egg yolk was investigated. DIC textured egg yolk had excessive EC (sixty six g oil/g dry basis), compared to 57 and fifty six g oil/g dry basis for freeze-dried and standard sizzling air dried egg yolk, respectively. This could possibly be due to the publicity of hydrophobic teams of unfold proteins.

These circumstances are guaranteed by the DIC process. In reality, the functions of glass transition in food know-how have been reviewed in lots of papers [28, 29]. Several research have reported glass transitions and state diagrams for meals, similar to fruits [30–32], greens [33, 34], and meat products [35, 36]. Glass transition is a crucial component to grasp and to foretell the behavior of meals throughout processing and storage [29, 37]. The glass transition phenomenon is a reversible state transition of amorphous substances occurring when a glassy state materials is changed right into a supercooled soften during heating or, conversely, to the reverse transformations during cooling under its glass transition temperature (T g ) at a extra fast rate than the rate of crystallization [38].